Q. South Asia needs to be rethought, not as a region of states, but as a region of regions. Comment.

Q. Discuss the pros and cons of the private sector entry in the space sector.

Q. Critically examine the necessity for initiative like the “ATMANIRBHAR BHARAT: Vocal for Local” in making India self-reliant. 10 Marks.

Q. Discuss the significance of the election of India as a non-permanent member of the Security Council. What should be the strategy of India to effect the emerging global challenges? 15 Marks.

Q. How far do you agree with the view that Rajya Sabha is losing its sheen as an exalted forum for scholarly debate? Justify your case.

Q. ‘Against china, India’s response should be economic and diplomatic not military’. In the light of the statement why India needs to be trading powerhouse?

Q. “The digital revolution creates an illusion of development but real development can take place only through primary activities like promoting agriculture and industries”. Critically Examine.

Q. Critically examine the utility of the MPLADS for welfare and development of vulnerable section of the society. Whether its suspension for two years is justified for better utilisation of scarce resources of the state in the time of COVID-19. Justify your view. 15 Marks [250 words].

Q. “Online education can never be a substitute for classroom education”. Do you agree with the statement? Give your view.

Q. Is India’s judicial system suffering from an underhanded breach of judicial independence? Analyse your view.

 INTRODUCTION [ 30 words]

The alleged quid pro quo conduct of judges has seriously damaged judicial independence, of which the most recent example is the ex-CJI joining as a nominated member of Rajya Sabha. [ 30]

THE BODY [136 words]

Broadly, the judicial independence can be derived from two factors. The first, independence from the executive for which the major sources in India are:
1. Guardian of the constitution
2. Protector of fundamental rights
3. Final interpreter of law
The second is the conduct of the judges itself which has also questioned judicial independence time to time (a less known and understood) like
1. Writing favourable judgements: Justice Loyya and Ram Temple cases
2. Post-retirement benefits: appointment to quasi-judicial bodies and at times to legislative and executive positions-Governor Sathasivam
3. Nexus/corruption- Sharda university and case of justice Shukla of Allahabad High Court

The recent examples from Saumitra Sen, P D Dinakaran to ex-CJI Ranjan Gogoi show that how their alleged conduct may have seriously affected unbiased judgment- the essential objective behind the concept of Judicial independence.

THE WAY FORWARD [ 86 words]

1. Implementing Justice R M Lodha suggestion on the post-retirement conduct of judges
2. Enact judicial standards and accountability Bill
3. Institutionalising a Code of Conduct for judges similar to the practice of the US and the UK.
The above judicial reforms are needed even if there are also instances of absolute judicial independence like Keshavananda Bharati, S R Bommai, the Fourth Judge Case and Puttaswamy Judgement and Indian judiciary enjoying the status of being the second most independent judiciary in the world after the US.

This answer has around 252 words.
We have tried to write in 250 words to show exactly how it can be/should be written, although it is not the finality and one can have one’s own way of writing but largely the structure and content should be directed to focus on how judges conduct affects judicial independence. That is why we have even started with the judicial independence itself.

Q. ‘Science is no substitute for virtue….If men were rational in their conduct… intelligence would be enough to make the world a paradise…’ Russell. Comment.

Q. Explain Thomas Hobbes concept of ethics and discuss its relevance in the field of governance.

Q. What do you understand by human values? In what way it is significant for ethical conduct? Explain with some present relevant examples.

Q. Ethics in public relation and ethics in private relation are two sides of the same coin. Elucidate.

Q. Which great Indian personality has inspired you the most as a role model and how have you been able to benefit in your own life by such an inspiration?

Q. What do you understand by ‘Ethical Human Conduct’? In what way is it important to be ethical along with being professionally competent?

Q. What do you understand by ‘Ethical Human Conduct’? In what way is it important to be ethical along with being professionally competent?

Q. Explain the virtue ethics philosophy of Aristotle? How it is applicable in the field of civil services?

Q. What do you understand by normative ethics? How it differs from descriptive ethics? Discuss the significance of both approaches in the field of ethics.

Q. Distinguish the relationship between ethics and morality with examples.

Q. Differentiate the following terms with examples:a) Character and valuesb) Behaviour and conductc) Morality and valuesd) Values and virtue

Q. Ethics deals with right and wrong aspects human character and conduct on the basis of established standard. Explain the statement with appropriate examples.

Q. What main ethical dilemma is faced by the government for continuity of lockdown and what should it do to overcome the dilemma?

The continuity of the explanation on this question Basically, any answer consists of three layers


This is structure part then it is the content what you are going to write which in the ethics paper will be largely consists of concept plus application with reference to examples/philosophy Any answer is a piece of article which tries to give a view on the given question, hence a question has a particular demand therefore, a candidate cannot write anything rather strictly adhering to what has been asked by the question?

Any digression will result into not addressing the main demand. The INTRO should be kept very short and lucid. like you should have written The COVID-19 has posed many formidable challenges and ethical dilemmas to the government due to uniqueness in the socio-economic status of the country. then the body part should have again directly had begun with although there are many ethical dilemmas of which the most important is- protecting life vs. securing livelihood of people. then you should have a bit elaborated it that what exactly it is. and then one should have gone for suggesting what the government should do?

In suggestions again one should not write like the first three papers of GS, rather should have some points related to human behaviour like dignity/respect/trust in the points after this while concluding, one should try to link with any philosophy if any, to substantiate one’s view by linking it to the role and duty of the state in relation to its citizens, that is, it should not be only worried about reviving economy but also what specific steps are being taken to support the most vulnerable in the society, that is why here the theory of justice becomes a suitable reference as it talks that the most important way to evaluate justice done by the state is: the action of the state should not make the life of the most vulnerable worse, if it cannot make better.

We hope this explanation will further improve your understanding on answer writing in ethics.

This explanation has been given by S Ansari Sir.

Q. Is it ethical to evacuate students from Kota, Rajasthan but to ask migrant labourers to stay wherever they are? Explain and give justification to your view.

ASHUTOSH BANERJEE As per your answer, following remarks can be given:
1. Content is inadequate/narrow base of answer
2. View is one-sided (too much significance to responsible govt from one side)
3. Depth of analysis lacking
Although structure is good.
MOHAMMAD SHAH FAHAD The answer has 4 major areas for remarks as per your content,
1. Introduction should be a bit short
2. The question in not about ethical dilemma, hence the two points are avoidable
3. Vulnerable are not only students but also women/children/ migrants labourers as a whole- means you need to be clear who are considered as vulnerable
4. In the end, conclusion don’t give clarity that what is you view exactly.
DEVESH SHISHIR 1. Some points are good/good logic
2. But one sided view or narrow base of logic
3. Concluding view not right
4. Need a broad perspective
AMAN RAJAK 1.Even if ANS is long but still not able to address the main demand
2. Logis are not appropriate
3. Some unnecessary content
4. In the end, stand not taken on the question, rather suggestion given what to do.
5. Need ethical content
ARUN SARASWAT 1. Structure is good as it argues both sides
2. Logic is not appropriate
3. Depth in view is lacking
4. In the end, no stand taken whether it is ethical
5. Hence, ANS remains incomplete.
N.B KRUPAKAR 1. Structure is good as it focuses on two sides
2. But logic in not appropriate
3. One sided logic
4. In the end, stand is not taken rather something else is concluded
5. Hence, Q largely remains unanswered.